Scientists are the explorers of today Essay
Exploration in the commonly accepted sense began with people like the sea-faring Columbus when, in the middle ages it was realized that the earth is a globe, not flat. It held a crucial role for centuries in colonization and trade expansion. In the 19th century startling results were achieved by wealthy and gifted amateurs. However quite early in this century virtually the whole of the earth’s surface had been mapped in outline, and most of it surveyed by explorers on foot. The process has more recently been completed by the use of the aircraft and the helicopter. Attention is now concentrated on underground and undersea exploration and in recent years on space exploration.
Before the First World War the international attitude towards exploration was competitive, as in the case of space exploration today, the USA. and USSR constantly trying to surpass each others achievements. After the first war the attitude was more co-operative. An international council of scientific unions was set up, its role being assumed by UNESCO after the Second World War. This organization co-ordinates results end supplies a limited amount of cash. This work culminated in the International Geophysical Year, 1957, in which 70 nations participated, producing a systematic study of the earth end the environment. A stop was put on territorial claims in Antarctica. The solid earth was examined scientifically by means of a series of deep probes, but since deep drilling is increasingly expensive, a stop was eventually put on this method.
Since only 30% of the earth’s surface is above sea level end only 10% habitable, attention has naturally been diverted to underground end undersea exploration for human reasons. It is necessary to drill for minerals, for fuel end for water in order to plan new facilities. Although modern exploration is largely pragmatic, the scientific aspect provides most interest, e.g. the work of the Upper Manke Committee. All observations are naturally indirect. They are based on drilling into the earth’s crust where it is known to be most shallow in order to find out its physical properties. In the process of drilling more is discovered about an area’s liability to earthquakes, its underground radioactive end magnetic values etc. The USA. pioneered this venture, end a drill of 35,000 feet was aimed at. Since it proved so expensive US Project Mohole was abandoned in 1967. Seismic methods are used for the discovery of oil end gas deposits and today there are airborne devices for detecting minerals such as oil end gas. These operate by detecting slight changes in the earth’s magnetic field. There is also a scanning infra-red sensor of greet use in geo-chemical exploration.
Undersea exploration is of equal, if not greater importance since its results have led to immense discoveries. Offshore oil end gas rigs now proliferate. However, much underwater work is a matter of scientific surveying. Sound echoing devices now enable scientists to map the ocean bed accurately end to discover far more about the seabed under the polar icecaps. Deep-see drilling produces core samples which provide useful information. Today the work is co-ordinated by a consortium of oceanographic institutes.
If space exploration is to be included then obviously science plays the dominate role in all ventures. The earth is now surrounded by hundreds of orbited satellites which provide various kinds of information, from weather reports to international communications. Many are in orbit for purely scientific reasons. They measure natural phenomena in space, solar end cosmic radiation, magnetic fields. They assist in technical observation of stars and lead to an understanding of the evolution of the solar system. There are also lunar end inter-planetary programs which further extend human knowledge. The manned projects must partly depend on the scientific know-how of the space explorer himself.
Has modern exploration lost glamour and the old dependence on self-reliance? Partly; but human nature being what it is, outward-bound ventures in relatively unknown areas of the earth’s surface will always persist.
Scene at a Bus Stand
Free sample essay on A Scene at a Bus Stand for school students. A bus stand presents a cross-section of humanity at large. Especially at a bus stand in a metropolitan city, one can see people belonging to different states and even different nationalities. They wear different dresses and speak different languages, but all are parts of the great human race. A bus stand is a very busy place. There is a continuous inflow and outflow of buses. Most of the buses are overcrowded. Some of them are packed to capacity. People are stuffed in these buses like lifeless commodi¬ties. The condition of the old, the infirm, the ladies and the children is spiteful. In many buses, seats are reserved for passengers of such categories. But most often this rule is not observed in letter and spirit by the selfish passengers. Buses begin to ply very early in the 31 Morning. The early office-goers rush to catch them. As the day advances, rush also in¬creases. There are long queues at the book¬ing windows. When there is delay in the arrival of a bus, the passengers get bored. They begin to look at their watches every now and then. Some people in the queue spend their time in reading newspapers or maga¬zines. Others discuss some political matters or ‘seams’. Still others just indulge in gos¬sips. Those who feel hungry or thirsty, regale themselves with some refreshment or cold drink at the nearest tuck-shop. Beggars also avail themselves of such opportunities. They just beg or sing to beg. As the bus arrives, the passengers rush to board it. The queue is often broken. There is scramble between those who want to alight from the bus and those who want to board it. In this struggle, some passengers get their pockets picked. Other loses their luggage. Some of them, especially children, get crushed under the feet of rash and reckless passengers. If any suspicious ob¬ject is found at the bus stand or in the bus, the matter must be reported to the police or the roadways authorities. Some bus stands become pools of muddy water during the rainy season. Some of them do not have proper sheds to protect the passengers from heat and rain. Others do not have proper arrangement for drinking water or neat and clean eatables. More at¬tention should be given to the comfort of passengers. The beggars should not be al¬lowed to enter the bus stand premises. The vendors’ wares should be surprise checked by health authorities.
Are childhood years most important in one’s life?
It is about time somebody exploded that holy old myth about childhood being the most important years of our life. Childhood may certainly be important, but if we compared it with other period if life such as adolescence, I do not see any more importance.
First of all, parents are absolutely dictators. Children do not have options, or if they do, nobody notices. Think of the years when you are a child. Who ever asked you an option? I have no such experience, to say the least. Parents choose the clothes we wear, the books we read and even the friends we play with. We have to manipulate so as not to interfere too seriously with the lives of our elders.
Even so, it is only part of the reason. We have vague memory of most parts of our childhood. Many of the things we learnt, the happy hours we spent and troubles we suffered have no trace in our mind at all. Do you still remember every quarrel you had with your little friends? Do you clearly remember every trip you had with your parents or other children? Most of you may probably say nay, I think.
However, we may learn a lot when we are children. All these may contain what we think of as the most important thing, but we are passive to learn them. Without independence, how can we say childhood is most important period of our life? So, as I see it, childhood is certainly not the moors important years of a person’s life.